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Latitude: 54.9813 / 54°58'52"N
Longitude: -2.2667 / 2°16'0"W
OS Eastings: 383030
OS Northings: 565216
OS Grid: NY830652
Mapcode National: GBR DBMV.24
Mapcode Global: WHB29.42W3
Entry Name: Springhead Structure and 4 Troughs
Listing Date: 21 October 2009
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1393495
English Heritage Legacy ID: 506878
Location: Haydon, Northumberland, NE47
Civil Parish: Haydon
Traditional County: Northumberland
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland
Church of England Parish: Haydon Bridge St Cuthbert
Church of England Diocese: Newcastle
339/0/10007 CHESTERWOOD GREEN
SPRINGHEAD STRUCTURE AND 4 TROUGHS
Springhead structure including four stone troughs of probable late C18 date
PLAN: an inverted L-shape with curving left return and a linear setting of stone troughs
A springhead structure formed by a pair of retaining walls of coursed sandstone blocks with rounded coping stones; there is a curving return to the left providing revetment. The east wall has a deep rectangular recess with a partly chamfered lintel. Inside are the springhead and a deep stone trough; the iron fixings for a former wooden door to the left of the recess and for a cup on a chain to the right remain. Water is fed from the first stone trough in the recess through a hole into a crude narrow channel cut into the surface of a large flat stone set against the north retaining wall and then into the first of three stone troughs set in a line. Each trough has a crudely cut outflow allowing the water to egress from one to the other.
HISTORY: A water feature in this position is shown on the Chesterwood Enclosure Award dated 1792 when it was retained within the common land in and around the buildings forming the settlement. The springhead structure is clearly depicted on the first edition Ordnance Survey map of 1863 and on all subsequent editions. The spring provided both animal and domestic water supply for the adjacent small hamlet of Chesterwood; domestic supply obtained from the enclosed recess and animal and other functions from the stone troughs outside. Chesterwood originally comprised a settlement of bastle houses, defensive farmhouses dating from the C16 and C17 centuries, six of which survive today. Bastles provided security for their inhabitants from the danger of violent Scottish incursions. Today the hamlet of Chesterwood consists mainly of a post-medieval farmstead and a group of at least six bastles arranged around a rectangular green.
Ryder, P F Towers and Bastles in Northumberland: A survey 1994/5 Part IV Tynedale District Vol 2, pp82-4; Chesterwood Enclosure Award 1792 Northumberland Record Office ZBL/68/2
REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: This C18 springhead structure and four stone troughs are designated for the following principal reasons:
* as a set of effectively intact water supply structures dating to before 1840
* they provide a good example of the nature of traditional village domestic and animal water supply which was once very common but that are now becoming increasingly rare in a national context
* they have historic interest as a surviving component of medieval and post-medieval village life
* they have strong group value with five listed bastles, three of which are also designated as scheduled ancient monument.
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