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1-5, High Street, Kelvedon

Description: 1-5, High Street

Grade: I
Date Listed: 21 December 1967
English Heritage Building ID: 116472

OS Grid Reference: TL8590518429
OS Grid Coordinates: 585905, 218429
Latitude/Longitude: 51.8335, 0.6968

Location: Church Street, Kelvedon, Essex CO5 9AG

Locality: Kelvedon
Local Authority: Braintree District Council
County: Essex
Country: England
Postcode: CO5 9AG

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Listing Text

TL 8418-8518 (north-west side)

9/159 Nos. 1-5 (odd) (also
21.12.67 known as Knights
Templars Terrace)
(formerly listed as
nos. 1, 2 and 3 Knights
Templar Terrace)


Provincial mansion of the Abbot of Westminster, now 3 houses. Early C16,
altered in C18 and late C19. Timber framed, with 2 facades of yellow brick in
Flemish bond with stone dressings, the remainder plastered with some exposed
framing, roofed with handmade red plain tiles. Range of 5 large bays facing SE,
with 3 rear wings of 2 bays, forming an E-plan. Original stacks in left wing,
in rear of main range between left and middle wings, and at right end of main
range. Later stacks to right of middle wing and to right of right wing.
Catslide extension to rear of main range between left and middle wings, and
single-storey extension to right of left wing. Stair tower between middle and
right wings, and 2 smaller extensions to rear of it. Single-storey lean-to
extension to rear of right wing, subject to planning application at time of
survey, November 1986. 2 storeys, cellars and attics. Ground floor, 3 late C19
tripartite sashes of 2-2-2 lights and one late C19 sash of 2 lights. First
floor, 6 late C19 sashes of 4 lights. 3 late C19 4-panel doors with plain
overlights in stilted segmental arches, with projecting false keystones. Stone
plaque near left end inscribed 'Knights Templars Terrace'. Stone plaque over
door of no. 5 inscribed '1873 J.C. & A.C.'. 3 giant pilasters. Dogtooth bands
at first-floor level and above first-floor windows, plain parapet with stone
coping. The Church Street elevatiqn at the left end meets the main elevation at
an obtuse angle, and has a similar facade with one dogtooth band and no parapet.
Ground floor, one similar tripartite sash and one late C19 splayed bay of sashes
of 2-4-2 lights; first floor, 2 late C19 sashes of 2 lights. Roof hipped at
front. On each side of the right rear wing some framing is exposed; close
studding, curved braces trenched to the outside; at the end a blocked archway
1.68 metres wide with 4-centred head, and a smaller blocked doorway with
4-centred head. The left side of the right wing and the right side of the
middle wing are jettied, the latter underbuilt. No. 5 (a the right end)
comprises a large entrance-hall one bay wide with rooms to each side, the stair
tower, and the right rear wing. The remainder is irregularly divided between
nos. 1 and 3. Ground storey approx. 3 metres high, varying according to the
site gradient, which declines from left to right; upper storey 2.64 metres high,
originally open to the roof, now with C17 inserted ceilings and mainly occupied
attics. Full-length underbuilt jetty at front. In the main range and the
middle rear wing all the beams and joists are richly moulded, the joints scribed
to the profile of the mouldings. Original oak floorboards are set parallel to
the joists, rebated into them, and are mostly exposed below. In the other rear
bays the beams are chamfered, and the joists are plain and of horizontal
section, mainly plastered to the soffits. Jowled posts. Cambered tiebeams,
butt-purlin roofs with arched collars and arched wind-bracing, originally gabled
to the front, altered to hips. In the front bays the tiebeams, principals,
purlins, collars and braces are hollow-chamfered; in the rear bays they are
plain-chamfered at all arrises. Numerous doorways with 4-centred doorheads,
some blocked; a small one at the right end behind the stack may have been to a
garderobe or private stair. The left stack has a chevron-headed niche of
moulded brick above the wood-burning hearth facing forwards; the rear hearth has
a replaced mantel beam. The middle stack has at the front a moulded cambered
mantel beam, one moulded jamb, and above, a repaired niche with 2 trefoiled
heads; at the rear a mitred mantel beam with 3 original trefoiled niches above
of moulded brick; and at first floor front, a mitred mantel beam with niche
above with 4-centred head. The right stack has a chamfered mantel beam with
roll stops, and above, 2 truncated diagonal shafts and original pointing (see
no. 7, High Street, item 9/160). Original groundsills. In the left bays the
joists and beams are jointed to match the obtuse angle of the 2 elevations,
resulting in irregular plan forms. The first-floor rooms of no. 3 retain traces
of wall-painting of c.1600 and in the rear wing an unglazed window with 4
hollow-moulded mullions, blocked externally. 2 first-floor rooms of no. 5 are
lined with moulded pine panelling of c.1600, with similar contemporary doors of
oak; 2 of these walls retain extensive remains of painting of c.1600. Original
cellar of bricks of high quality 0.24 x 0.12 x 0.05 metre, with piers supporting
hearth, and original steps to ground floor, original doorway now blocked. This
property was part of the manor of Church Hall, held by the Abbot of Westminster
from before the Conquest until 1539, then by the Bishop of Westminster, and from
1550 by the Bishop of London. The position, size and high quality of timber and
workmanship indicate that it was built for the Abbot of Westminster as a
provincial mansion, continuing in similar use after the Dissolution. The manor
was leased from 1553, and by 1604 the building had become a major inn called
'The White Lyon', later 'The Red Lion'. By 1791 this house and no. 7 (item
9/160) had been converted to 4 tenements, as they remain today. In a major
restoration of c.1878 panelling was found bearing carvings of pomegranates, a
heads, strawberry leaves and the crest of Henry VIII, now missing, and a
photograph was taken of the Church Street elevation stripped to the timber
framing. The brick facades and present windows and doors date from that
operation (P. Morant, The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex, 1768,
II, 150; A. Hamilton, 'A description of an old inn at Kelvedon', Transactions of
the Essex Archaeological Society, I (n.s.), 1878, 153-8; B.L. Kentish, Kelvedon
and its Antiquities, 1974, 39-41 and plates 10-11). RCHM 39.

Listing NGR: TL8590518429

This text is a legacy record and has not been updated since the building was originally listed. Details of the building may have changed in the intervening time. You should not rely on this listing as an accurate description of the building.

Source: English Heritage

Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.