A full regular courtyard plan farm complex of c1804, with C19 and early-C20 additions.
Reason for Listing
* Historic interest: the survival of a good part of this large-scale courtyard steading from c1804 is relatively rare in the national context; most date in their entirety to the High Farming period of the 1840s-70s;
* Regional distinctiveness: the scale, arrangement of the complex, as well as its relationship with the land are all features strongly representative of farming practices and traditions within this area;
* Materials: the use of chalk in the c1804 farm buildings and house is representative of vernacular building techniques;
* Evolution: although partially rebuilt, the complex as it stands today demonstrates the development of farming practices over time, as well as retaining some fixtures and fittings of note.
The townships of Weaverthorpe and Helperthorpe were enclosed in 1804. The style of the farmhouse, combined with the planned layout of the original complex, suggests the farmstead dates to this period. The long field strip associated with it to the North will however have earlier origins.
The complex, incorporating the U-shaped courtyard and the farmhouse, first appears on the 1854 1:10560 map. The house is depicted as sub-rectangular plan aligned east-west along the main road, with a central rear outshot. This footprint appears little-changed until the 1911 map, by which point an extension has been constructed to the east. The east end was later truncated and the rear outshot was extended to the west during the second half of the C20. The roof timbers indicate the roof was raised at some point, while gable windows and those to the frontage have been blocked at attic level. The building underwent a period of renovation during the late-C20, when many of the original fixtures and fittings were removed.
There was some rebuilding of the courtyard ranges during the mid-late C19 and the early-C20. Between the publication of the 1854 and 1890 maps, an opening was knocked through the north range of the farm buildings in order to give access between the courtyard and the fields. The east range is present on the 1854 map with a projection to the east, likely to have been a horse engine house, spanning the field boundary which divides the current north and south sections. Between this date and 1890, the north section of the range was rebuilt and the possible horse engine house removed, most likely in response to the introduction of steam threshing. Its north gable end was renewed between 1890 and 1911. The single storey section of the east range is likely to date to shortly after 1911, tying in with the partial rebuilding of the west range and the upgrading of the complex. The courtyard was covered during the 1970s.
Materials: The farmhouse is constructed of brick with chalk to the rear, and sandstone detailing to the main elevation. The courtyard buildings are a mixture of chalk and brick to the original section and brick to the C19 and C20 sections. The farmhouse has a concrete tile roof while the courtyard building roofs are of pantiles.
Plan: The farmhouse sits facing south to Main Road and is sub-rectangular with a rear outshot. The farm buildings form a roughly U-shaped courtyard to the north.
Farmhouse: The five bay farmhouse is of two-storeys plus attic, painted white with black detailing. Windows are one-over one pane sashes, with three blocked window openings to the attic floor. The central entrance incorporates a four-panel, partially glazed door. The rear outshot is original to the east and modern to the west; the latter incorporates a chimney. All windows and doors to the rear are renewed. There is a blocked entrance to the east of the outshot. Both gable ends are blind, save for evidence of blocked windows to the attic floor. The building has brick chimneys to both gables and between the first and second bays in old brick.
West range: The single storey west range of the courtyard has a taller central section. The southern half is constructed in brick, while the northern half is of chalk; the join sits to the middle of the central section. The south gable end has a plank door and multi-paned window. Other access is mainly from the courtyard, with alternating wood plank stable doors and ventilation windows to the brick section, a double-width entrance to the centre and half-height brick wall with open access to hay racks above to the north. The northernmost bay has been incorporated from the original north range; this section is blind save for an enlarged entrance to the north, although there is evidence of a large, blocked entrance to the west.
North range: This is single storey, of chalk with brick detailing. It has been partially incorporated into the west range. The gable ends flanking the courtyard access match in style and height and utilise brick rather than chalk, indicating the range was once continuous. The cart shed section to the east of the break has three open-fronted, north-facing bays with brick piers. A corrugated iron and wooden lean-to abuts the eastern bay of the north range, which has a blind north wall. This lean-to is not of special interest. Access to the courtyard is through this eastern bay, which incorporates a shrunken entrance with wood plank door and a ventilation window; the remainder of the south elevation is blind. There is a wood plank shuttered window to the east gable end, as well as ventilation cowls to the eaves.
East range: This is of two storeys to the north with a first floor granary, and single storey to the south. The east elevation has two windows to the granary with wood plank shutters and one window to the south section. There is a cart entrance with a straight brick lintel to the north. The west elevation overlooking the yard has alternating wood plank stable doors and ventilation windows, with two wood plank shuttered windows to the granary. There is a blocked doorway to the south. The north gable wall is rebuilt, with brick steps leading to the granary door. Access to the southern section is via the south gable end.
Farmhouse: The ground floor front range of the farmhouse has a central entrance hall with original stair; this has turned, painted balusters with plain, square newels and a ramped handrail. Only the marble fire surround to the westernmost ground floor room and two plain surrounds to the first floor remain in-situ, although their grates are renewed; all others have been removed. Cornicing and architraves are original to most rooms, save for those to the rear and the easternmost ground floor room; here all plasterwork and features are reproduction. The original section of the rear ranges has been completely modernised. The attic floor is accessed via a door to the landing; a wall has been inserted here and the balusters removed to the top flight of stairs; those to the attic landing are stick balusters. The attic floor contains four rooms; that to the west retains a simple fire surround, while there is evidence of three other blocked fireplaces. The exposed, open trusses show evidence that the roof was raised by approximately a foot. Areas of lathe and plaster survive underneath the replacement roof covering. Doors to the lower two floors are mainly four-panel. One original six-panel door survives to the attic, as well as two wood-plank doors.
West range: A tack room sits to the southern end with a brick floor and a separate area with blocked corner fireplace. This are retains its harness hooks, rests and iron rings. An internal plank door leads through to the open-plan remainder of the west range. This has hay racks running along the west wall up to the north end of the central section, at which point larger racks with loading access from the courtyard begin to the east.
Roof trusses to the southern section are mainly queen truss using sawn timber, with one steel king truss. The central section, lining up with the large opening to the courtyard, is flanked by two RSJs; that to the south with brick infill above indicates the line of rebuilding. This section contains a hay-loft of probably re-used hewn timbers, with a queen truss roof above. The north section has a different roof structure using only one straining piece per truss, all in hewn timber, but with metal rods. The northernmost bay, originally forming part of the north range, has a mixture of RSJs, sawn and hewn timbers with some trenched purlins.
North range: This is largely plain, although there are two brick-flanked niches to the rear wall. The easternmost bay is divided from the cart sheds by an internal chalk wall with a wood plank door. There is evidence in the east bay of a blocked opening onto the courtyard. The roof structure utilises mostly hewn timbers with some sawn, and is of open trusses with trenched purlins throughout. At least one of the timbers has a Carpenter’s mark in the form of the Roman numeral III.
East range: The northern, two storey section of the east range contains calf stabling and a fodder processing room with grain tank. The stable retains four stalls with wood dividers, brick flooring and a drainage channel. Both rooms have substantial hewn beams. There is a wood plank stable door separating the two rooms, and one accessing the south range. The granary was not fully inspected, however it is largely plain save for partially blocked openings to the east and west (unaltered externally). The roof structure is open truss, and a mixture of hewn and sawn timbers with metal rods.
The south, single storey section contains a calf house with eight stalls with alternating half and full length wooden divisions, brick flooring and drainage channels. To the south, through a brick dividing wall with stable door, is a similar room with a drainage channel however all fittings have been removed. The southernmost bay is a large, plain store room. Roof timbers are a mixture of hewn and sawn.
The courtyard is covered by a steel-framed roof and has late-C20 dividing walls and hay troughs inserted to the peripheries. A steel-framed Dutch barn, pole barn and a wooden hen house (partially collapsed at the time of inspection) sit to the north of the courtyard buildings. These features, as well as modern infill and connecting roofs, are not of special interest and are excluded from the listing.
Source: English Heritage
Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.