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Ingulfs, Rochford

Description: Ingulfs

Grade: II
Date Listed: 16 May 2013
Building ID: 1412970

OS Grid Reference: TQ9193192878
OS Grid Coordinates: 591931, 192852
Latitude/Longitude: 51.6018, 0.7700

Locality: Rochford
Local Authority: Rochford District Council
County: Essex
Postcode: SS4 2DG

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Listing Text


Rectory and stables built in 1862 to the designs of S. S. Teulon.

Reason for Listing

Ingulfs, a rectory and stables built in 1862 to the designs of S. S. Teulon, is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

* Architect: it is a characteristically idiosyncratic example of the work of S. S. Teulon whose eclectic Victorian Gothic designs are numerously represented on the List;

* Architectural interest: it has a strong architectural character exemplifying the muscular Gothic style in its bold frontage and vigorous roofscape which gives way to quieter, more refined garden elevations. The asymmetrical composition of the house is unified by the rhythmical projection and recession of the gabled bays, and by the regular variation in the treatment of the fenestration;

* Plan form: the hierarchy of space is articulated through the evocation of the medieval hall house in which the service area (‘low end’) is accessed through paired doorways and the family area (‘high end’) is indicated by the double-height stairwell lit by a traceried window. This feudal architectural language similarly marks the transitional point between ‘high’ and ‘low end’ on the first-floor corridor by the use of the square billet moulding above the door which leads from the servants’ bedrooms to the family’s bedrooms. This moulding gives the impression of a crenellation, acting as a reminder to the servants that they were about to enter the family’s side of the house.

* Interior: the internal joinery and decorative fittings, such as the handsome Jacobean-style staircase, the fireplaces with their distinctive tiling, the panelled doors, fitted study furniture and sash shutters, all display a consistently high quality of design and craftsmanship, and their survival contributes significantly to the special interest of the house;

* Group value: the rectory and stables form a significant group of contemporary buildings designed by Teulon using similar materials and architectural detailing;

* Historic interest: the association with Joseph Wigram, the Bishop of Rochester, adds further special interest as he was a figure of some significance whose family was well-known in public life.


The rectory in Paglesham was built in 1862 to the designs of Samuel Sanders Teulon (1812-1873). It is labelled on the historic Ordnance Survey (OS) maps as ‘Rectory’ but has long been known as ‘Ingulfs’ after the Abbot of Crowland (c.1045-1109) who had owned land around Paglesham. The house was described in The Ecclesiologist as ‘very compact and well planned’, although the more ‘simple’ stables and offices ‘are rather more to our taste than the house itself.’ Teulon’s designs were often criticised in The Ecclesiologist for their excess and flamboyance but, despite this, he established a substantial and successful practice. Born in Greenwich of Huguenot origin, Teulon attended the Royal Academy Schools and was articled to George Legg and George Porter before setting up his own practice in London. He received many commissions for domestic buildings, including rectories, vicarages and country houses, and designed over a hundred new churches, as well as restoring many others. He has over two hundred buildings on the List, some of which are listed at II*, including churches that he rebuilt or restored. His masterpiece is considered to be the Church of St Stephen, Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead (c1869-71) which is listed at Grade I.

Teulon had been responsible for a number of rectories before designing Ingulfs. The house carries the coat of arms of the Bishop of Rochester who lived there until his death in 1867. Joseph Cotton Wigram had been consecrated as Bishop in 1860 and he commissioned the rectory in Paglesham as the diocese then included Essex and much of Hertfordshire. At his death he was described by an acquaintance as ‘one of the most single-minded, straightforward men I have ever known, somewhat cold in manner, but full of energy and devotion to his work’. Joseph came from a well-known and successful family: his brother Sir Robert Wigram was a director of the Bank of England and an MP; and his father Sir Robert Wigram, also an MP, was one of the leading merchants in the country. He pressed the government to establish the East India Dock Company in 1803 and he ran Blackwall Yard, one of the largest shipyards on the Thames. The Bishop’s coat of arms incorporates that of the Wigram family which has three escallops on a chevron and a four-masted ship on the sea, with his own episcopal sash and mitre.

Ingulfs continued in use as a rectory until the mid-C20 when it became a private house and underwent some changes, principally to the service areas on the north side of the house. The lean-to was added in the recessed area to create a covered yard. The tradesman’s entrance, which had formerly been aligned with the kitchen, was blocked up; and the window on the right hand side of the recessed area was opened up to create a new doorway in which the original door was reused. The wall between the pantry and dairy was also removed around this date. The roof covering above the service area has recently been renewed. The other main change to have taken place is in the transitional area between the reception rooms and service quarters. Mid-C20 plans show paired doorways on the north side of the hall with that on the left leading to a room labelled ‘cloakroom’, and that on the right leading down a short corridor to the service rooms. The doorway on the left has since been blocked up and the wall between the former cloakroom and corridor has been removed to create a larger room for a kitchen. Other alterations include the recent replacement of the tiled floor in the porch and the re-siting of the stained glass window from its original position in the porch to the bell tower. The ground-floor window in the first bay of the south elevation has been replaced with a timber replica, and on the north elevation the window to the store room has been replaced with a crittal window. The tall twisted chimney stacks shown in historic photographs have been truncated.

The stable block has also been subject to alterations. Inside the porch, the opening to the stable on the left and that to the living accommodation on the right, have both been bricked up. The tack room and hay loft have been adapted for living accommodation, and a modern garage door has been put in the east end which was probably used formerly for a carriage. The south and east sides of the wall enclosing the forecourt, which were rebuilt in the mid-C20, are not of special interest.


MATERIALS: Rich red brick with dressings in brick, some vitrified, and glazed tiles. Slate-clad roofs.

PLAN: The house faces west and has an asymmetrical, approximately rectangular plan with a projecting entrance porch at the south end.

EXTERIOR: The two-storey house is in the muscular Gothic style and is characterised by irregular elevations, a complex roofscape, and pointed arch windows. It has a first-floor brick string course and all the gables have tumbled in brickwork at the apex and ends, and sometimes along the sides. The principal, west-facing elevation has, on the right hand side, a two-storey gabled entrance bay with a chimney stack rising through the gable end. At first-floor level is a group of three pointed arches consisting of a double row of alternating headers and stretchers, punctuated with vitrified brick. This form of brick arch is repeated over the apertures throughout the building, although usually with a single line of bricks. Underneath the outer arches there are small one-over-one pane sash windows which have a pointed arch upper sash and timber glazing bars, as do almost all the windows. Underneath the central arch is the stone-carved coat of arms of the Bishop of Rochester. There are no windows on the ground-floor which extends on the left side under a sloping roof to form the entrance porch. This has a pointed arch opening with dogtooth brickwork and chamfered jambs with broached stops. A datestone with ‘1862’ is set above in a circular brick surround. The Victorian-style tiled floor of the porch is a modern replica and the window with red coloured banding is also of recent date. The original plank and batten door forms a pointed arch and retains its wrought-iron door furniture, including decorative strap hinges. Above the sloping entrance porch is a single-bay projection under a pyramidal roof, lit by a three-over-three pane window, the upper sash not quite rising to a point but having chamfered corners and a flat top instead. To the left is a slightly recessed bay which is lit by a C20 casement window on the ground-floor (although the pointed brick arch remains). The first-floor is lit by a three-over-three pane sash which has a chamfered upper sash with fish-scale red and black tiling in the apex of the arch. This tiling detail is used extensively throughout the house, particularly on the east (garden) elevation.

To the left is the recessed service side which has a mid-C20 lean-to extension covering a formerly open recessed area. It has an off-centre pointed arch doorway, flanked by flat-headed casements. Above the lean-to, on the right hand side, is a bay under a hipped roof, lit at first-floor level by a pair of two-over-two pane sashes. To the left is a slightly taller bay which serves as both a dovecote and bell tower. It has a pyramidal roof surmounted by a timber bell-cote and has three openings for doves under the eaves but these are now blocked. The small pointed arch window (which was moved there from the porch) has diamond leaded lights, each containing a floral motif in stained glass, and the whole is edged in red. To the left is the northernmost projecting gabled bay which has a blind lean-to extension at ground-floor level, and a six-over-six pane sash window above.

The shorter south elevation faces the garden. From the left, the first bay has a tall, multi-paned, replacement window on the ground floor, and above a gabled, six-over-six pane sash with the tiled detailing. To the right is a door under a pointed arch, similar to that on the façade, which is flanked by two small windows. There is an original cast-iron boot-scraper pierced with two quatrefoils, a recurring motif in the decorative scheme of the house. Above the door, slightly to the left, is the first-floor window which lights the principal staircase. It is set under a hipped gable that projects slightly from the roof. The four-light window has a chamfered mullion and transom, with an oculus in the apex of the arch, flanked by small triangles with a single trefoil below; the whole giving the effect of geometric tracery. The right hand side is dominated by a projecting three-sided, double-height bay under a multi-pitched roof, surmounted by a delicate wrought-iron finial. Each side of the bay is lit by a pointed arch window with the tiling detailing in the apex.

The east elevation also faces the garden. From the left it has a gabled bay with a projecting chimney, and then a three-over-three pane window on the first and second floors. This is followed by a slightly projecting chimney which is overlapped by a projecting gabled bay with C20 double-leaf French doors with pointed arch glazing to the upper panels. The original overlight has bordered glazing and red stained glass in the each corner. Above is a three-over-three pane window. This is followed by a two-over-two pane sash on both floors, under a wedge dormer. Next is a gabled bay with two three-over-three pane sashes on each floor, followed by a lower gabled bay with a first-floor sash window and a casement window on the ground floor which has the original iron security bars (this room was the former pantry). The short north elevation has two similar ground-floor windows with iron bars (to the dairy and scullery), followed by a crittall window to the storeroom under the lean-to.

INTERIOR: The front door opens into a long hall around which the three reception rooms are arranged in an L-shape on the south and east sides. The principal staircase is located on the south side between the study and drawing room, and leads to the five bedrooms (one has been converted to a bathroom) in the polite (south) side of the house. A door on the north side of the hall leads to the former service rooms which are also arranged in an L-shape on the north and east sides of the house. Along the north side, starting from the north-west corner, are the store, scullery, dairy and pantry (the latter two rooms now fitted with a kitchen), with the former kitchen (now sitting room) on the east side of the house. To the south of this is the former cloakroom, now used as a kitchen. The secondary staircase leads to the three former servants’ bedrooms.

The interior retains a high proportion of the original fittings and joinery, including the floorboards, doors, moulded skirting boards and picture rails. Pitch pine is used extensively and is mostly painted white except for the staircases and entrance doors. Certain stylistic features are repeated, such as the use of the trefoil and quatrefoil, and the chamfered panels on the doors, shutter boxes, and fitted furniture. The four-panelled doors (with shorter lower panels) are set in moulded frames which terminate in a broached square block at the base. The two entrance doors at the south end of the house have chamfered battens and they retain all their iron door furniture, including the lock case, decorative latch, latch fastener and bolts. The windows have vertically sliding shutters (also known as sash shutters) which are housed below the window in panelled boxes. The shutters in the original kitchen are said to have the original green paint.

The paired doorways in the hall leading to the service rooms evoke the plan form of a medieval hall house which typically had two doors leading from the low end of the hall to the service areas. The high end, where the lord presided from a dais, was open to the ceiling and was often lit by an oriel, which is here echoed in the high stairwell lit by a traceried window. The paired doorways are set in a square frame that reaches to ceiling height and have ogee arched openings with pierced trefoils in the spandrels. The central post incorporates an original umbrella stand. The doorway on the left has been blocked up. A wide pointed archway opposite leads to the principal open well staircase which has winders at the first and second turns and a quarter pace landing. It is C17 in style with a closed string, pierced splat balusters, and heavy square newel posts which have chamfered edges and rudimentary finials carved with quatrefoils. There are two surviving fireplaces in the reception rooms. The white marble chimneypiece in the drawing room (south-east corner) has a relatively plain surround with a keystone and mantelshelf supported by elaborately carved foliate consoles. The grate has been removed. The chimneypiece in the dining room (east side) is similar in design but is made of dark reddish/ brown marble mottled with white, and has tiled cheeks with a subtle lattice pattern in green. It retains its dog grate complete with trivets. The C18 style corner cupboard in this room is not original to the house. The fireplace in the study has been replaced with a C20 brick surround but there are original fitted cupboards with shelving either side, and also on the opposite wall, which are of high quality design and craftsmanship. Upstairs, the first-floor corridor is articulated by a series of pointed arched openings. The bedrooms in the polite side of the house retain fireplaces, three of which have stone surrounds, painted white, with a shouldered arch opening with tiled sides which have a yellow floral and fleur-de-lys motif on a red background. The cast-iron grates have pierced trefoils in the top corners and some retain the trivets.

In the service area, the former kitchen has a large stone chimneypiece which contained the range (since removed) and has fitted cupboards on each side. The former dairy and pantry has been made into one room and fitted with a modern kitchen. The former scullery retains the quarry-tiled floor and fitted shelving, and the original pump remains in the covered yard. There is a brick cellar which has in-built wine storage. The plain secondary staircase, which has chamfered stick balusters, gives access to the plain former servants’ rooms. The connecting door between this end of the house and that occupied by the family has square billet moulding above and a strap hinge to prevent it from banging.


PLAN: The stable block is situated to the north and faces south towards the house. The west side contains a stable and former hayloft under a half-hipped roof. At right angles to this is a single storey plus attic range under a low pitched roof which contains a former tack room (now kitchen), groom’s accommodation and garage (probably the former coach house).

EXTERIOR: The same materials and architectural detailing used for the house, such as the tumbled in brickwork and pointed arch windows, are repeated here. The west elevation has a gabled bay lit by a square-headed stable window under a pointed brick arch, and a C20 casement window inserted in place of the hay loft opening. This is followed by the entrance porch which has a pointed arched opening and brick-lined floor. To the right is a C20 window, followed by a C20 timber garage door. The rear elevation is lit by original windows with pointed arch brick heads and has a dentilled string course just below the attic windows.

INTERIOR: The stable retains its original door, brick-lined floor and stall dividers, and the adjoining tack room has one panelled wall with hooks. The former hay loft has been incorporated into the living accommodation, in which the grained joinery and other fittings survive well, including four-panelled doors, matchboard cladding, fitted cupboards, and C19 cast-iron grates. The closed well staircase is boxed in by ceiling height vertical panelling which is pierced with quatrefoils.

Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.