Church, Anglican 1890 to the designs of Henry Higginson of Carlisle
Reason for Listing
This mission church of 1890 is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architectural interest: it displays of detailing above the norm for a church of this type, and the use of red brick from the local brick works central to its community it is both attractive and of interest;
* Intactness: it is externally unaltered since its construction, and the simple interior also remains largely intact;
* Historic interest: it illustrates the process of spreading the Church of England mission, and establishing new churches in unparished areas of expanding populations during the later C19.
St Andrew's was built to designs of Henry Higginson of Carlisle as a Mission Church to house a congregation previously meeting in a nearby barn. The church was built at a cost of £500, could seat 150 people and was opened in 1890 by the Bishop of Carlisle. It is depicted on the Second edition Ordnance Survey map of 1901, marked as 'St Andrew's Mission Church'. An historic photo showing the church under construction, and another of the interior in c.1890 illustrates that the church is largely unaltered.
The C19 saw a number of religious revivals leading to an expansion in those attending both established churches and non-conformist places of worship. In addition, the industrialisation of many cities created an expansion in populations without sufficient churches to meet this demand. Many non-conformist communities therefore chose to erect a new church or chapel themselves, while the Church of England embarked on a building programme; in areas where there was no existing parish, these new churches were often known as mission churches. Botcherby was not included within the Carlisle city boundaries until 1912 and this would explain the construction of a separate mission church in 1890. The adjacent late C19 brick and tile works (now demolished) is considered to have supplied the bricks for its construction and may have provided the increased population that motivated the church's construction.
PLAN: situated on the corner of Wood Street and St Andrew’s Close, the church occupies a prominent site with the ritual west front facing true south; the ritual orientation is used in the following description. The church has a short rectangular nave with an apsidal sanctuary and an attached vestry; there is a west tower and porch with opposing entrances.
MATERIALS: red brick laid in English Garden Wall bond with a pitched slate roof.
EXTERIOR: brick cornice to the exterior walls and most elevations display tumbled-in brickwork. Openings are mostly recessed with pointed-arched heads defined by single or double brick surrounds, and the windows retain original timber three-light frames with plain glass. Each side of the four-bay nave has corner buttresses and four simple lancets, alternating with stepped buttresses. Above the west end there is a tower in the form of a bellcote supported on two substantial stepped buttresses. The top of the tower has a gabled roof with two smaller gables, one to each side, set at right angles. Each of these has a recessed opening with louvers. Between the pair of buttresses there are paired windows with a roundel above, and below this a porch with a pent roof. The porch has triple square-headed windows and is entered via opposing doors through the north and south sides.
INTERIOR: two steps lead up to a small apsidal sanctuary with a domed ceiling whose arch has a simple hood mould and stops; iron altar rails to the front have barley sugar twisted supports and ivy decorated brackets with a moulded wooden top rail. Three of the five lights in the upper sanctuary walls have leaded glass with stained glass roundels. A door leads from the sanctuary into the small vestry. The latter irregularly shaped and wrapped around the apse, has original five-panelled doors and retains a mantle piece with a boarded over fireplace. With the exception of two short examples, the choir stalls depicted on a photograph of c. 1900 have been removed, but the nave retains original benches with close boarded backs and curved ends, separated by a central aisle. A later organ has been inserted into the rear of the nave. The walls are plainly painted throughout with a timber cornice, and the roof structure comprises three segmental-arched timber trusses supported on stone corbels. There are four ceiling ventilators in the form of timber quatrefoils. The west porch has opposing north and south entrances which retain their original heavy wooden double doors, and the church is entered through double doors with glazed small panes to their upper parts and original door furniture.
SUBSIDIARY FEATURES: set to the front of the west end with short returns, there is a low brick wall with stone copings set with original ornate railings; a pair of gate piers at the centre with moulded caps retain original ornate wrought iron double gates.
Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.