Chimney. c1863, by Thomas Hawksley, consultant engineer for the Sunderland and South Shields Water Company.
Reason for Listing
The detached chimney at Cleadon Pumping Station is listed at Grade II* for the following principal reasons:
* Date: an early example of a 'campanile'-style chimney, a design much in fashion in the 1860s;
* Architectural interest: a handsome and imposing example which is outstanding in terms of its scale and grandeur;
* Designer: designed by the eminent Victorian engineer Thomas Hawksley.
Sunderland and South Shields Water Company was created by Act of Parliament in 1852 to address the urgent need on health and economic grounds for better provision of clean, accessible drinking water for the increasing population of industrial Wearside and Tyneside. A number of wells were constructed, from Cleadon in the north, to Hesledon in the south; the works were all designed by Thomas Hawksley (1807-1893), and built between 1859 and 1862. Hawksley is entered in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; he was an eminent and nationally renowned water supply engineer and an expert in his field.
Cleadon pumping station was built between 1860-2 and it began working in 1862. The tall chimney, also known as Cleadon water tower, provided a draught for the boilers as well as the dispersal of waste gases. During the Second World War the chimney was used, in conjunction with other local landmarks, as a navigation aid. The opening of the Derwent Reservoir in the 1970’s led to the closure of the pumping station.
Materials: red brick with light coloured lime-rich mortar and rusticated sandstone quoins and one high level stone string course.
Plan: square with central flue, around which spiral 141 stone steps.
Exterior: tall Italianate chimney in the form of a three-stage campanile with a bracketed upper string course and pyramidal roof. Each face has twelve deeply inset vertical windows in groups of two or three with brickwork recessed around each group; those to the upper stage have round-headed surrounds. There is a ground floor entrance and a cantilevered gallery to the top floor.
Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.