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Trafalgar House

A Grade II Listed Building in Winchester, Hampshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.0629 / 51°3'46"N

Longitude: -1.3183 / 1°19'5"W

OS Eastings: 447868

OS Northings: 129509

OS Grid: SU478295

Mapcode National: GBR 861.9HW

Mapcode Global: FRA 8649.L8Q

Entry Name: Trafalgar House

Listing Date: 14 January 1974

Last Amended: 29 July 2016

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1095342

English Heritage Legacy ID: 144872

Location: Winchester, Hampshire, SO23

County: Hampshire

District: Winchester

Electoral Ward/Division: St Michael

Parish: Non Civil Parish

Built-Up Area: Winchester

Traditional County: Hampshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Hampshire

Church of England Parish: Winchester St Lawrence with St Swithun-upon-Kingsgate

Church of England Diocese: Winchester

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Summary

A C18 town house extended in the C19, altered in the C20 and remodelled internally in the 1970s by Donald Insall and Associates.

The 1970s office block extension attached to the west and south by Donald Insall and Associates is not of special architectural and historic interest and is not included in the listing.

Description


A C18 town house extended in the C19, and C20.

MATERIALS: C18 elevations in red brick in English and Flemish bonds, with a clay tiled roof.

PLAN: originally a C18 double depth plan with a central staircase, but now only one room in depth with rear access into a C20 office block. The main elevation of the C18 house faces east. There is a plinth under the footprint of the house, and in the basement there are two cellar chambers.

EXTERIOR: the C18 town house is Georgian in style and of two storeys, attic and basement. It is mainly symmetrical, and in 6 bays, but the entrance door is offset to the left, in the third bay, leaving three bays to the right, and two to the left. The three bays to the right are in English bond, and those to the left in Flemish. A brick plinth constructed in English bond runs the length of the building which is pierced with segmental arched cellar window openings to the southern end. The front door has six panels of which the two upper lights are glazed, and is inset into timber panelled linings. The moulded timber architrave has a pedimented canopy, which is supported by a fluted entablature on narrow pilasters with paterae at the angles. The entrance door is raised above two stones steps, which terminate on the pavement. A small casement window with lead lights is located to the left of the architrave. All bays have six over six sash windows with chamfered glazing bars. Some window frames are replacements but originals have some earlier glass. On the ground floor they are arranged under flat rubbed brick arches, and on the second floor they sit within projecting brick panels, under flat rubbed brick arches. The four dormers are hipped and have two-light timber casement windows with multiple panes. Guttering is cast iron with hoppers, and stands above a projecting eaves course of header bricks. There is a single internal chimney stack on the roof ridge to the south. The northern elevation has a blind gable end with evidence of bricked up former fenestration. The western and southern walls are embedded in the later 1970s extension by Donald Insall Associates (the extension is excluded from the listing).

INTERIOR: the house has a lobby with moulded panelling beneath a dado rail, and plain ceiling moulding above. There are two ground floor rooms to either side of the lobby. Both have blocked fireplaces, and panelling beneath a dado rail, with plain ceiling mouldings above a picture rail. The doors have six panels, one of which is glazed. The architraves have been cut into for services, and window surrounds have the vestiges of their timber shutters. To the rear there is access to the 1970s block through a segmental arch decorated with fragments of two repositioned plaster mouldings. The first floor has two main rooms either side of a central smaller room. This room has access off the first floor landing, and from the southern room via a C18 six panelled door. All other doors appear to be C19/20. The northern room is plain and has a C18 fireplace surround, with C20 brick and tile insert. The southern room has moulded panels beneath a dado rail, and a blocked up fireplace. The attic space is open and has two rooms either side of the landing. Some plain roof beams are visible. In the basement there is a northern cellar chamber with vaulted brick ceiling.

History

The first recorded lease for Trafalgar House is dated 1673 and was granted to John Ford. It describes the site as a dwelling house with stable, and hop garden. The house was located in Gar Street, which was later re-named Trafalgar Street, after the famous battle. A building of a similar footprint to the extant C18 house is shown on Godson’s Map of 1750 where it is shown on a plot surrounded by gardens or allotments. The lease passed through successive holders until the freehold was sold to local builder Peter Stubbington in 1820. An unattributed historical essay within the Hampshire County Council records suggests that this prompted changes to the main elevation, in order to create a more harmonious Georgian facade. The front elevation has a distinct change in brick and bonds to the right of the main entrance door. There is English bond to the north, and Flemish to the south which suggests that the northern portion may be the older section. The full width of the elevation sits on a plinth of English bonded brick and clunch, suggesting that the footprint is of original scale. The house entrance is located within the southern section.

The building was then rented to Matthew Lush, and became the Trafalgar House School. During this period, class rooms were added to the west encompassing a former bay window, and a school yard was added to the rear. Circa 1898 the building was further extended by four bays to the south, to provide master’s accommodation, a music room and toilets. In 1914 the school amalgamated with the Peter Symonds School, but by 1918 it was absorbed in to the state system. In about 1922 the building was converted into offices and a laboratory for the county medical officer. In preparation, windows were added to the northern scullery as part of a conversion to toilets, and the former outside toilet block was converted to a centrifuge room. This development also provided a general modernisation including the insertion of some concrete floors and replacement services. Sections of the original wall panelling below the dado rail have been moved or replaced and a number of doors are C19/20 replacements.

By the 1960s the County Council was looking to create a new civic centre for the council, and in 1963 a scheme was proposed by Louis de Soissons to provide new law courts, a grand forecourt, and campanile tower. Although the law courts by R Fraser were completed, in c1970 the council adopted an alternative scheme by Donald Insall and Associates, which was completed by 1976. The objective was to compliment the formal courtyard area with new unified facades overlooking the courts and town hall. The development retained the front elevations of listed buildings on the High Street, and replaced their rear with a modernist office block. This approach was broadly replicated to the rear of Trafalgar House, resulting in the removal and rebuilding of the western elevation, and the removal of the southern extension of four bays. The depth of the building was also reduced to become a single room deep plan. This removed the stairs and rear rooms, which were then replaced by those of the office development. The combined offices are now (May 2016) vacant.

Reasons for Listing

Trafalgar House, a C18 town house extended in the C19, and altered in the C20, is listed at Grade II for the following reasons;
* Architectural interest: a late-C18 town house that also illustrates the common development of such buildings from domestic to commercial use;
* Degree of survival: the principal façade survives well, including the pedimented entrance, brick detailing, and sash windows. Internally the principal rooms retain some moulded plasterwork and joinery;
* Group value: it makes a positive contribution to the street scene which has a range of listed domestic and commercial buildings in the historic town centre, illustrating the evolution and development of the streets adjacent to the High Street and civic centre.

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