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Church of St Mary the Virgin

A Grade I Listed Building in Ingatestone and Fryerning, Essex

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Latitude: 51.6759 / 51°40'33"N

Longitude: 0.3683 / 0°22'5"E

OS Eastings: 563846

OS Northings: 200110

OS Grid: TL638001

Mapcode National: GBR NJN.XLP

Mapcode Global: VHJKD.B4KM

Entry Name: Church of St Mary the Virgin

Listing Date: 10 April 1967

Last Amended: 9 December 1994

Grade: I

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1197282

English Heritage Legacy ID: 373627

Location: Ingatestone and Fryerning, Brentwood, Essex, CM4

County: Essex

District: Brentwood

Civil Parish: Ingatestone and Fryerning

Built-Up Area: Fryerning

Traditional County: Essex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Essex

Church of England Parish: Fryerning St Mary the Virgin

Church of England Diocese: Chelmsford

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Listing Text

(North side), Fryerning
Church of St Mary the Virgin (Formerly Listed as:
Church of St Mary the Virgin)


Parish church. Chancel and nave late C11, W tower early C16, restored by Wykeham Chancellor in 1869. Chancel and nave of exposed coursed lumps of indurated gravel conglomerate with lacing courses of Roman brick, and some flint rubble;
dressings of limestone, clunch and Roman brick, roofed with machine-made red clay tiles. W tower of red brick in English bond. Aligned ENE-WSW in the middle of a high circular churchyard. Chancel of square plan, nave slightly Wider, of double-square plan. W tower of square plan with contemporary half-octagonal stair turret to NE and diagonal buttresses to NW and SW. C19 vestry to N, enclosing N doorway, of handmade red and blue bricks and lime mortar in Flemish bond, roofed with machine-made red clay tiles, and lean-to to W, of handmade red bricks with cement mortar, roofed with similar tile. S.Porch ,1869.

CHANCEL: has E quoins of Roman brick. In the E wall is a window entirely C19/20 except the C14 splays and possibly the chamfered 2-centred rear-arch. Above it is an indistinct brick arch, the aperture blocked with tiles, and the gable has much handmade brick of indeterminate date. In the N wall is a window, all C19 except the C14 splays and chamfered segmental-pointed rear-arch. In the S wall are 2 windows, all C19 except the CI5 splays and depressed pedimental rear-arch. Between them is a late CI5 doorway with moulded jambs and 4-centred arch in a square head (with minor repair) and a moulded label; the rubble adjacent to it is patched with C16/17 brick. The chancel-arch is C19.

NAVE: has 4 quoins of Roman brick. In the N wall are 2 windows; the eastern is round-headed, C11, much restored, possibly widened, plastered internally; the western is C19 except the C14 splays and chamfered, almost semicircular rear-arch. Further W is an C11 window, round-headed with voussoirs of stone and Roman brick, blocked with C16/17 brick; the wall above has been repaired with C16/17 brick. E of the windows the wall has been thickened internally to enclose a rood-stair, with stepped tabling above, all plastered; the upper and lower doorways are square-headed, restored. Immediately E of the lower doorway is a shallow recess with chamfered jambs and 4-centred head, all plastered. Almost below the blocked window is the C11 N doorway, with plain jambs, restored semicircular arch, and high semicircular rear-arch. In the S wall are 4 windows; the easternmost is C19 except the C14/15 splays and chamfered segmental-pointed rear-arch; the others are C11, round-headed, much restored and probably widened, plastered internally. The S doorway, almost under the third window, is uniform with the N doorway but unrestored except for one stone of the E jamb. A semicircular groove of square section has been cut on the inner face of the voussoirs to receive an iron flange on the head of the door, which is early C18, of oak in 8 fielded panels enclosed by ovolo mouldings, having minor repairs; original iron-cased lock and wrought-iron ring-handle of diamond section. Both roofs are C19.

W TOWER: red brick with patterns picked out in vitrified black headers; in the S wall this comprises a diamond extended to form a triangle below, and 2 short horizontal lines within the diamond, probably a symbolic representation of a fish in the vertical position. In the N wall the pattern is indistinct, but may represent a Calvary cross, and initials. It is of 3 stages with a crenellated parapet which projects on a corbel-table of small 2-centred arches, and has stepped merlons, with restored pinnacles at the corners. On the E side the central merlon has a chamfered square panel with a cusped circle in moulded brick; on the S side the central merlon is similarly panelled with a circle and 6 round holes in moulded brick, possibly the same as that on the E originally; the merlon to W of it has a blank panel, possibly plastered and painted originally; on the W side the central merlon is similarly panelled with a 6-pointed star; the merlons on the N side are plain. The brick tower-arch is 2-centred and of 3 orders, the innermost chamfered; it has been repaired at the base, the remainder repointed with cement mortar. The W window is of 2 restored brick 2-centred lights under a 2-centred head, all chamfered. The second stage has in the N and W walls a plain rectangular loop, and in the S wall a small window with chamfered jambs and 3-centred head, possibly a later enlargement of a third loop. The bell-chamber has in the E wall a window of 2 round-headed lights in a round arch, all chamfered; in the N wall a single chamfered round-headed light in a common outer order; in the S and W walls a window of two chamfered 4-centred lights in a common round arch. There are C20 repairs to the brickwork at the base, mostly below one metre, and minor repairs elsewhere. Original floor of heavy joists of horizontal section, and framed bell-trap.

FITTINGS AND MEMORIALS: piscina in the S wall of the nave, plain round drain and rough arched head, cement-rendered, date uncertain. The font of Caen stone has a square bowl with panelled sides carved with conventional foliage, 2 stars, whorl, crescent, 4 small quatrefoils, and 2 foliated crosses with foliage; lower edge moulded, and rounded at angles to take small round shafts, round stem, c1200, base and side-shafts C19. In the S porch is an indent, much eroded, reported earlier to be C15, a half-figure of a priest and inscription, and 3 fragments of coffin-lids; 2 have remains of crosses and the third has part of a lozenge-cross, all with beaded edges, C13. In the vestry, attached in a swivel-frame, is a brass of Leonard Berners, 1563, and Mary (Gedge) his wife, male figure lost except left foot in armour, female figure, and scroll; all palimpsest, male figure on part of fur-lined robe of secular figure, c1500, and female figure on part of widow in horned head-dress, c1460. There are 6 bells; the first by Robert Mot, 1590, 3 by John Thornton, 1716, and one by Thomas Mears, 1793. The bell-frame is partly old. Wykeham Chancellor, who undertook the restoration of 1869, believed that the tower was constructed under the direction of Girolamo de Trevizi, architect of Hampton Court, and that he was concerned also in the tower of Sandon church, the clerestorey of Great Baddow church, and the gatehouse of Layer Marney (St. Mary's Fryerning, unsigned, possibly by the Reverend William Mellor, undated).

Listing NGR: TL6384600110

This text is from the original listing, and may not necessarily reflect the current setting of the building.

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