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27-31 Main Street

A Grade II Listed Building in Bretforton, Worcestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.0945 / 52°5'40"N

Longitude: -1.8703 / 1°52'13"W

OS Eastings: 408981

OS Northings: 244027

OS Grid: SP089440

Mapcode National: GBR 3LF.MZ0

Mapcode Global: VHB0V.JML6

Entry Name: 27-31 Main Street

Listing Date: 30 July 1959

Last Amended: 10 September 2015

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1349993

English Heritage Legacy ID: 148644

Location: Bretforton, Wychavon, Worcestershire, WR11

County: Worcestershire

District: Wychavon

Civil Parish: Bretforton

Built-Up Area: Bretforton

Traditional County: Worcestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Worcestershire

Church of England Parish: Bretforton

Church of England Diocese: Worcester

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Summary

Three attached houses. Early-C14 origins; with phases of alterations and additions from the C15 or C16 through to C20.

Description

Three attached houses. Early-C14 origins; with phases of alterations and additions from the C15 or C16 through to the C20.

MATERIALS: the building is constructed of timber framing, with infill panels of painted brick, and Cotswold and local lias stone rubble which are brought to course. The roofs are clad in thatch (southern third) and plain tile roofs with axial and gable end stacks.

PLAN: it is rectangular on plan and aligned roughly north-south.

EXTERIOR: a one-and-a-half storey building with its north gable end facing onto the road. The left-hand bay of the east elevation comprises the stone-built former barn which has an inserted three-light window in a former doorway. To the right, are two bays that are timber framed and contain three casement windows of two and three lights and a C20 gabled porch with modern, half-glazed timber door to the ground floor. The upper floor has two, two-light casements of C19 date under eyebrow dormers. To the right of the porch is a partly rendered section of walling with a two-light casement to each floor; the upper one is a gabled dormer. No. 29 (to the right) has a C17 mullioned stone window of three lights with a hoodmould at ground-floor level and a C20 three-light dormer window to the attic storey. Towards the northern end of the building is a porch which breaks forwards of the elevation and contains two modern doors which serve Nos.29 and 31. The south end of the porch largely masks vertical joint in the masonry, though the quoins are visible. Beyond the porch is a modern uPVC window and a smaller one above the porch. The north gable wall also has a uPVC window to the upper floor. The left-hand bay of the rear (west) elevation has a vertical joint in the masonry beyond which there is a change in the coursing and type of stone (both Cotswold and blue lias) employed. To the right of the joint, at ground-floor level, is a blocked doorway into which a uPVC window has been inserted; a square blocking with a stone surround of varying thickness; a C17 mullioned three-light window; and a single, stair-light with stone surround that is set higher than the other openings. The three right-hand bays at the southern end of the building contain a further blocked doorway, three- and two-light casements, a single light, and a mullioned window of two lights under a timber lintel. To the attic floor are two dormers with modern windows, and two roof lights.

INTERIOR: not inspected (2015). No.27 has an inglenook fireplace with chamfered jambs of Cotswold stone (right jamb partly rebuilt) and a timber bressumer. Early joinery includes an axial ceiling beam and plank doors. The roof timbers include a full cruck blade which has a felling date of 1315/16.
Three attached houses. Early-C14 origins; with phases of alterations and additions from the C15 or C16 through to C20.

History

Bretforton, situated in the Vale of Evesham, was recorded by that name in a Charter of 709, and by 714 was endowed to the Benedictine Abbey of Evesham. Nos.27-31 Main Street is situated towards the north-western end of the settlement, on the south side of a road which runs through the centre of the village. The building has a fairly complex history, and dendrochronological analysis (Nayling, 2003, see Sources) has indicated that it has early-C14 origins, but subsequently underwent substantial rebuilding. The rear wall was rebuilt in stone and a single-storey addition, probably an outbuilding or barn, of one bay, was added to its south end. The northern two-thirds of the building appear to have been added at various times, as evinced by vertical joints in the west and east elevations; probably from at least the C17, since the mullioned stone windows are consistent with this date. The Ordnance Survey map of 1885 depicts the building as three units; probably two dwellings and the outbuilding to the south, but by 1904 it had been converted to three cottages, plus the outbuilding. In the early C21 the barn was incorporated within no.27 Main Street to provide additional accommodation.

Reasons for Listing

Nos.27-31 Main Street, which has early-C14 origins with phases of alterations and additions from the C15 or C16 through to C20, is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architectural interest: as an example of early vernacular architecture originating from the early C14 with later phases, in a range of local vernacular building materials;
* Evolution: the earliest phases of the building remain legible, as do the subsequent adaptations and additions which provide evidence of the building’s historical development;
* Interior: no.27 is notable for a surviving full cruck which has been dated to the early C14;
* Degree of survival: despite later alterations, the proportion of surviving historic fabric is relatively high.

Selected Sources

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