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Latitude: 51.4203 / 51°25'13"N
Longitude: -2.5011 / 2°30'3"W
OS Eastings: 365251
OS Northings: 169153
OS Grid: ST652691
Mapcode National: GBR CYY.2P
Mapcode Global: VH88W.LKMJ
Entry Name: Keynsham Hams Bridge (MLN111404)
Listing Date: 18 July 2012
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1409190
Location: Keynsham, Bath and North East Somerset, BS31
County: Bath and North East Somerset
Civil Parish: Keynsham
Built-Up Area: Keynsham
Traditional County: Somerset
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset
An accommodation underbridge in the Tudor-Gothic style with a four-centred arch, set in a tall embankment, erected c.1839-40.
MATERIALS: pennant stone throughout, squared and coursed on the faces and soffit, ashlar for voussoirs, copings, and quoins.
DESCRIPTION: depressed, four-centred arch with a span of 16ft (5m) and chamfered voussoirs terminating in chamfer stops. Low continuous chamfered plinth around the external faces and the carriageway faces. Arch soffit and carriageway faces in coursed and squared stone. On both external faces the archway is flanked by stepped buttresses, the offsets with drip-mould and arris. Otherwise the faces are plain, continuing unbroken and parallel to the trackbed as straight wing walls, and rising up to form very low parapets without any intermediate moulding. The coping has a shallow fall. Post-war, galvanised steel, round section railings mounted on top of the parapets are not of special interest.
The Great Western Railway was authorised by an Act of Parliament in 1835 to construct a line from London to Bristol. At 118 miles this was slightly longer than the other major trunk railway of its time, the London and Birmingham (112 miles) and considerably longer than other pioneering lines. Construction of the line began in 1836, using a variety of contractors and some direct labour. The first section to be completed, from London to Maidenhead Riverside (Taplow), opened in 1838, and thereafter openings followed in eight phases culminating in the completion of the whole route in 1841. Work at the Bristol end of the line had started in 1835, and the section from Bristol to Bath had opened in August 1840.
The engineering of the railway was entrusted in 1833 to Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-59), who was already known for his engineering projects in Bristol. More than any other railway engineer of his time he took sole responsibility for every aspect of the engineering design, from surveying the line to the detailing of buildings and structures. He sought to achieve as level a route as possible and, working from first principles, he persuaded the Directors of the GWR to adopt a broad gauge of 7ft 0¼ in rather then the standard (4ft 8½in) gauge in use on other lines. A two track broad gauge line was 30ft wide, and this determined the span of the overbridges and other structures. Except for larger bridges such as Maidenhead Bridge, the majority of Brunel’s masonry bridges did not need to be as innovative as his works in timber and iron, and his structures followed the typical architectural idioms of his time, but they were all beautifully detailed and built and together they formed integral parts of a consistently-designed pioneering railway.
Although he left no written statement concerning his design concept for the line, it can be inferred from its design and from the way it was described when opened that part of his vision was a line engineered according to picturesque principles. This influenced his selection of the route and the design of structures along it. For reasons of cost, but also because it helped blend the railway to the landscape, he used local materials for bridges and other structures, ranging from stock brick at the London end of the line, to red brick, Bath stone east of Bath and Pennant stone west of Bath. This intentional variety was remarked on by contemporaries, for instance in J.C.Bourne, 'The History and Description of the Great Western Railway' (1846). On the line from Bristol to Bath, where the track runs along the Avon valley, Brunel chose to use Tudor four-centred arches for both the over- and underbridges, and castellation for tunnel portals and viaducts. This makes it the most distinctive part of the whole route from London to Bristol, and it is also the section on which the structures have generally survived in their original form because this part of the route was not quadrupled and the Pennant stone used for most structures has lasted well.
Existing contract drawings for bridges and other structures on the Bath-Bristol section of the line carry the signature of I.K. Brunel, reflecting his involvement with every aspect of the project. The Resident Engineer was G.E. Frere (1807-87), assisted by G.T. Clark (1809-98) and Michael Lane (1802-68), but their individual contributions have not been identified.
Keynsham Hams Bridge was one of the structures built c.1839-40 in time for the opening of this stretch of the line in August 1840. Contract drawings survive together with a sketch in one of Brunel's sketch books show him trying five different variations for Gothic underbridges and selecting the design which was executed as a taller, slightly plainer variant at Keynsham Hams. The only alteration since construction is the C20 addition of parapet railings
Keynsham Hams Bridge, constructed c.1839-40, is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Date: an early example of a railway structure dating from the pioneering phase in national railway development;
* Architectural interest: it is characteristically well designed, by the hand of Brunel, with a moulded four-centred arch and stepped buttresses in a Tudor-Gothic style;
* Historic association: it is constructed to a design by Isambard Kingdom Brunel who is widely perceived as one of the most important transport engineers and architects of the C19.
* Group value: it forms part of a group of architecturally similar overbridges on the section between Bristol and Bath.
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