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Pavilion Lodge, Childwickbury Stud

A Grade II Listed Building in St. Michael, Hertfordshire

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Latitude: 51.7919 / 51°47'30"N

Longitude: -0.357 / 0°21'25"W

OS Eastings: 513408

OS Northings: 211641

OS Grid: TL134116

Mapcode National: GBR H7Q.LKQ

Mapcode Global: VHFS1.R7M4

Entry Name: Pavilion Lodge, Childwickbury Stud

Listing Date: 19 October 2012

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1409597

Location: St. Michael, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, AL5

County: Hertfordshire

District: St. Albans

Civil Parish: St Michael

Built-Up Area: Harpenden

Traditional County: Hertfordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Hertfordshire

Church of England Parish: Harpenden St John

Church of England Diocese: St.Albans

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Pavilion lodge built c1890s as part of the Childwickbury Stud, possibly designed by R W Edis FRIBA.


MATERIALS: red brick with decorative timber blind arcading applied to outer wall faces, hipped roof clad in plain red ceramic tiles with bonnet tiles to the hips and brick chimney stack.

PLAN: short range of two rooms.

EXTERIOR: the single-storey building has an off-set plinth in darker brick and exposed rafters at the eaves. The long east elevation has to the left a two-light casement with glazing bars and to the right a timber plank door, now clad in plywood. The long west elevation has similar windows at either end. The short north side is lit by a similar window, and the south side has a central door, also clad in plywood. The timber-framed arcading applied to the wall faces above the plinth comprises plain square posts at the corners of the building and on the sides of the apertures, all painted green. The intermediate posts are similar and painted green, except that their upper parts are semicircular with turned mouldings, painted white, rising to the level of the impost blocks. From these spring the curved timbers forming pointed arches, painted white, below the eaves. The intermediate rail at sill level is painted green. The roof is crowned end to end by a glazed lantern with a hipped roof which has exposed rafters at the eaves and a central ridge stack with oversailing brick courses and two tapered pots. The long sides are lit by six three-light windows with vertical glazing bars, and the short sides by one four-light window.

INTERIOR: the larger south room has a vertical boarded dado and a boarded ceiling to the rafters below the lantern light. It has a four-panelled door, simple timber fire surround (the fireplace is now boarded over), a fitted cupboard to the right of the fireplace, and a red clay tiled floor. The smaller north room was not accessible but is probably similar and has a fitted corner cupboard.


In 1883 the Childwickbury estate was purchased by Sir John Blundell Maple (1845-1903), son of the founder of the famous London furniture store, who established a horse racing stud on the former farmstead. In 1888 he built extensive stable ranges and service buildings, creating the largest stud in the country with over 150 racehorses. In 1895 it was described in the periodical Racing Post as ‘one of the most complete and beautifully arranged of its kind’. In 1907 Lady Maple sold the estate to Jack B Joel, a diamond and gold merchant, who also bred many successful horses there. In 1940 the estate passed to his son H J Joel, known as Jim, and together they were amongst the most successful British breeders/ owners for most of the C20. Many important stallions were bred at Childwickbury, including Royal Hamton and Saraband for Sir John Blundell Maple, and Humorist for J B Joel; and it was the home of brood mares of outstanding pedigree, including Absurdity and Doris. The stud and the manor were sold separately in 1978, and successive owners of the stud have maintained it to a high standard with few alterations.

The stud yard comprises Childwick Hall, originally the farmhouse which became the manager’s house in 1888, and to the north-east the L-shaped range of horse boxes, the stallion boxes, trophy room and covering yard, the 1917 monument commemorating Doris, and the pair of pavilions, one for tack and the other for feed, all of which are listed at Grade II. To the north-west is a large field, formerly divided into paddocks, and along the northern edge is a long range called Beesonend New Boxes (locally listed) which may, as their name suggests, have been built a little later. They appear on the 1898 Ordnance Survey map, as does the pavilion lodge situated at the west end of the range, in the north-west corner of the field. It is very similar in style to the pair of pavilion buildings in the stud yard. Its precise function is unknown but it is thought to have provided accommodation for stable hands and possibly served as an office for the north entrance to the estate. The building has remained virtually unaltered except for the loss of a few panes of glass, and the external side of the doors have been clad in plywood. The stud buildings were probably designed by Sir Robert William Edis (1839-1927) who was head assistant to Anthony Salvin before commencing practice in 1863. He is associated primarily with the Queen Anne style of the 1870s and 1880s and has over twenty listed buildings he either designed or altered to his name.

Reasons for Listing

The pavilion lodge built c1890s as part of the Childwickbury Stud is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
*Architectural interest: its picturesque character, created by the use of timber arcading, red clay bonnet tiles and exposed rafters at the eaves, makes an important contribution to the harmonious design of the stud. The possible attribution of the nationally significant R W Edis adds to its architectural interest;
*Historic interest: it has considerable sporting historical significance as being part of one of the most famous and successful studs ever established in the country. The stud was the home of stallions and brood mares of outstanding pedigree, and was run by two of the most successful owner/ breeders of the C20 who owned the winners of 1,696 races;
*Group value: it has strong group value with the other listed stud buildings which were designed as a coherent architectural ensemble.

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