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Pillbox, north-east of Knoll House Hotel

A Grade II Listed Building in Studland, Dorset

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.6503 / 50°39'1"N

Longitude: -1.9566 / 1°57'23"W

OS Eastings: 403161

OS Northings: 83404

OS Grid: SZ031834

Mapcode National: GBR 44X.442

Mapcode Global: FRA 67SC.3K8

Entry Name: Pillbox, north-east of Knoll House Hotel

Listing Date: 30 November 2012

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1411819

Location: Studland, Purbeck, Dorset, BH19

County: Dorset

District: Purbeck

Civil Parish: Studland

Traditional County: Dorset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Dorset

Church of England Parish: Studland St Nicholas

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

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Summary

A variant pillbox dating from c.1940 which is part of the anti-invasion defences of Studland Bay.

Description

MATERIALS: reinforced, shuttered concrete.

DESCRIPTION: the pillbox is an irregular hexagon in plan, facing onto the sea (east). It is constructed of shuttered, reinforced concrete with three embrasures facing onto the sea, to the east, south-east and north-east sides. There is a hatch-type entrance on the west side which has been blocked with corrugated iron. Internally there are signs of wooden shuttering. The pillbox has sunk into the ground almost level with its embrasures.

History

Studland Bay was one of the two stretches of Dorset coastline where a German invasion was considered most likely. In 1940, the defence of the Dorset coast was the responsibility of V Corps whose 50th Division had its headquarters at Blandford Forum. Anti-tank islands were established in towns in the area and a number of stop lines were also constructed. Anti-invasion defences were constructed along Studland Bay in response to the threat of a German invasion. Forward defended localities were established along the line of the beach at Studland and a number of pillboxes and other defensive structures were constructed. Anti-tank cubes blocked possible exits from the beach at three locations and minefields were also situated amongst the sand dunes. Most of these defences were in place by early August 1940. In October 1940, the infantry battalion in the Studland Sub-Sector (Studland Defence Area) was the 7th Bn. Suffolk Regiment. By April 1941, it had been replaced by the 1st Bn. Coldstream Guards. The Dorset Home Guard unit also manning defences at Studland was No.2 (East Purbeck) Company, 7th (Wareham) Battalion was manned by No.2 (East Purbeck) Company, 7th (Wareham) Battalion of the Home Guard.

From the autumn of 1943, Studland Bay became an amphibious assault training area as part of the preparations for D-Day on 6 June 1944, one of the most significant dates in modern history, defining the start of the final phase of World War II in Europe. Six weeks prior to D-Day, Allied troops gathered in Studland Bay to undertake three full-scale training exercises to prepare themselves for the amphibious landings that were to take place on the beaches of Normandy. The rehearsal, codenamed Exercise Smash 1, was the largest live ammunition practice of the whole war period; battle training was also carried out using the anti-invasion pillboxes erected within the Defence Area. The bay was also the scene of a major experiment to test the effectiveness of burning oil as a defence against a German seaborne invasion, known as Project Fougasse, it involved piping oil to the sea and firing it by explosive charges.

Some 74m to the north-east of Knoll House Hotel is a pillbox which overlooks the beach. It dates from c.1940 and formed part of the anti-invasion coastal defences of Studland Bay

Reasons for Listing

The pillbox 74m to the north-east of Knoll House Hotel is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Historic interest: as part of the Second World War military program of coastal defences, it provides a visual reminder of the impact of world events on the area;
* Group value: it forms an integral part of a significant group of listed Second World War anti-invasion defences which could have been one of the front lines in the event of a German invasion.

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