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Latitude: 54.9654 / 54°57'55"N
Longitude: -1.3968 / 1°23'48"W
OS Eastings: 438715
OS Northings: 563584
OS Grid: NZ387635
Mapcode National: GBR LCP0.DV
Mapcode Global: WHD4Z.JG29
Entry Name: Detached chimney at Cleadon Pumping Station
Listing Date: 31 July 2013
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1416041
Location: South Tyneside, NE34
County: South Tyneside
Electoral Ward/Division: Cleadon Park
Parish: Non Civil Parish
Built-Up Area: South Shields
Traditional County: Durham
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Tyne and Wear
Church of England Parish: Cleadon Park
Church of England Diocese: Durham
Chimney. c1863, by Thomas Hawksley, consultant engineer for the Sunderland and South Shields Water Company.
Materials: red brick with light coloured lime-rich mortar and rusticated sandstone quoins and one high level stone string course.
Plan: square with central flue, around which spiral 141 stone steps.
Exterior: tall Italianate chimney in the form of a three-stage campanile with a bracketed upper string course and pyramidal roof. Each face has twelve deeply inset vertical windows in groups of two or three with brickwork recessed around each group; those to the upper stage have round-headed surrounds. There is a ground floor entrance and a cantilevered gallery to the top floor.
Sunderland and South Shields Water Company was created by Act of Parliament in 1852 to address the urgent need on health and economic grounds for better provision of clean, accessible drinking water for the increasing population of industrial Wearside and Tyneside. A number of wells were constructed, from Cleadon in the north, to Hesledon in the south; the works were all designed by Thomas Hawksley (1807-1893), and built between 1859 and 1862. Hawksley is entered in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; he was an eminent and nationally renowned water supply engineer and an expert in his field.
Cleadon pumping station was built between 1860-2 and it began working in 1862. The tall chimney, also known as Cleadon water tower, provided a draught for the boilers as well as the dispersal of waste gases. During the Second World War the chimney was used, in conjunction with other local landmarks, as a navigation aid. The opening of the Derwent Reservoir in the 1970’s led to the closure of the pumping station.
The detached chimney at Cleadon Pumping Station is listed at Grade II* for the following principal reasons:
* Date: an early example of a 'campanile'-style chimney, a design much in fashion in the 1860s;
* Architectural interest: a handsome and imposing example which is outstanding in terms of its scale and grandeur;
* Designer: designed by the eminent Victorian engineer Thomas Hawksley.
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