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Latitude: 53.1046 / 53°6'16"N
Longitude: -1.4233 / 1°25'23"W
OS Eastings: 438708
OS Northings: 356529
OS Grid: SK387565
Mapcode National: GBR 6BT.70Z
Mapcode Global: WHDG2.37J9
Entry Name: Alfreton Stream Bridge (SPC8 60)
Listing Date: 11 February 2014
Source: Historic England
Source ID: 1417693
Location: Wessington, North East Derbyshire, Derbyshire, DE55
District: North East Derbyshire
Civil Parish: Wessington
Traditional County: Derbyshire
Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire
Church of England Parish: Wessington Christ Church
Church of England Diocese: Derby
A single-span bridge carrying the railway over the Alfreton Stream watercourse, built in 1836-40 for the North Midland Railway to the designs of George and Robert Stephenson with Frederick Swanwick.
A tall single-span underbridge located in an embankment crossing Alfreton Stream built c.1836-40 for the North Midland Railway to the designs of George and Robert Stephenson, with their Assistant Engineer Frederick Swanwick,
MATERIALS: coursed and squared quarry-faced Derbyshire gritstone with ashlar dressings, and a red brick soffit.
DESCRIPTION: the east elevation comprises a single, segmental arch of rusticated, V-channelled ashlar voussoirs, with a slightly dropped and projecting keystone. The voussoirs spring from an ashlar impost band and terminate as ashlar quoins on the soffit. The bridge spandrels are formed from masonry laid to diminishing courses between impost band and parapet levels. The abutment walling continues in quarry-faced masonry with a tooled margin facing the arch. Slightly advanced curved abutment walls frame the bridge arch and slope downwards to meet terminating piers. A boldly-projecting ashlar roll moulding forms the coping at the head of the arch and extends onto the flanking abutment walling. There are low, C20, steel railings mounted on the coping above the bridge arch. The arch soffit brickwork includes areas of replacement C20 engineering brick. Below the arch impost band, coursed masonry inner walling rises from a low chamfered plinth. The west elevation of the bridge is understood to be similarly detailed.
The Midland Main Line is the outcome of a number of historic construction phases undertaken by different railway companies. The first two phases were carried out simultaneously between 1836 and 1840 by the North Midland Railway and the Midland Counties Railway. The North Midland Railway, which operated between Derby and Chesterfield and onwards to Rotherham and Leeds, was pre-eminently the work of George (1781-1848) and Robert Stephenson (1803-1859) who, along with Isambard Kingdom Brunel, are the most renowned engineers of this pioneering phase of railway development. They worked closely with the Assistant Engineer, Frederick Swanwick (1810-1885). The railway’s architect Francis Thompson (1808-1895) designed stations and other railway buildings along the line. The less demanding route for the Midland Counties Railway, which ran between Derby and Nottingham to Leicester and on to Rugby, was surveyed by Charles Blacker Vignoles (1793-1875) who was engineer to a large number of railway projects. These two companies (along with the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway) did not yield the expected profits, partly because of the fierce competition between them. This led to the three companies merging into the Midland Railway in 1844 which constituted the first large scale railway amalgamation. The next part of the line from Leicester to Bedford and on to Hitchin was constructed between 1853 and 1857 by the engineer Charles Liddell (c.1813-1894) and specialist railway architect Charles Henry Driver (1832-1900). In 1862 the decision was made to extend the line from Bedford to London which was again the responsibility of Liddell, except for the final fourteen miles into London and the design of the terminus at St Pancras (listed at Grade I) which was undertaken by William Barlow (1812-1902). Additional routes were then added from Chesterfield to Sheffield in 1870, and from Kettering to Corby in 1879. The most important changes to the infrastructure of the Midland Railway were the rebuilding of its principal stations and the increasing of the line’s capacity, involving the quadrupling of some stretches of the route south of the Trent from the early 1870s to the 1890s.
The Alfreton Stream Bridge was built between 1836 and 1840 as part of the North Midland Railway. The route from Derby to Chesterfield and onwards to Rotherham and Leeds was surveyed by George Stephenson in 1835, and the Act of Parliament for the construction of the 72 mile line was obtained in 1836. Linked at Derby to the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway and the Midland Counties Railway, it was to form part of a route from London to Yorkshire and the North East. George Stephenson was joined by his son Robert as joint Chief Engineer on the project in 1837. In order to concentrate on his mineral and mining interests, George relinquished his railway projects in 1839 so it was his son who saw the North Midland through to its completion in 1840. Part of Robert Stephenson’s skill in handling railway projects was his ability to select and manage an able team, and he entrusted much of the engineering design of the North Midland to Frederick Swanwick whose name appears on the surviving contract drawings. The Stephensons, supported by Swanwick, designed the line north from Derby to have gradients no greater than 1 in 250 to suit the low power of contemporary steam locomotives, which meant relegating Sheffield to a link line. To achieve such gradients the line followed the River Derwent as far as Ambergate and then ran through more difficult territory up the valley of the River Amber via Wingfield and Clay Cross to Chesterfield, then over to Rotherham and via Wakefield to Leeds. The notable sequence of picturesque stations along the line was designed by Francis Thompson who was therefore also influential in setting his stamp on the character of the line.
The Alfreton Stream Bridge is one of a series of railway bridges built c.1836-40 for the North Midland Railway between Derby and Chesterfield. The bridge was designed by George and Robert Stephenson with Frederick Swanwick. A number of contract drawings for bridges along this line show their common design and constructional characteristics. The bridge appears to have undergone little alteration since construction, apart from the C20 addition of metal railings and the renewal of the soffit brickwork.
The Alfreton Stream Bridge, built in 1836-40 for the North Midland Railway to the designs of George and Robert Stephenson with Frederick Swanwick, is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Historic interest: the bridge forms part of a series of railway structures built for the North Midland Railway between 1836 and 1840. The line was designed by George and Robert Stephenson, two of the most important and influential engineers of the railway era, aided by Frederick Swanwick, the company's resident engineer. The line is considered to be amongst the best- preserved examples of the pioneering phase of railway development in England, and retains many of its original engineering structures, of which this is an example;
* Architectural interest: the bridge is an example of the consistently high quality design and careful detailing of railway structures completed for the North Midland Railway between 1836 and 1840. Its aesthetic quality far exceeds the functional and structural requirements of bridge design;
* Group value: the bridge is one of a series of bridges developed between 1836 and 1840 which share a common architectural vocabulary, and which help define an early railway transport landscape of great interest and quality. Seven bridges in the Amber Valley section of the line between Ambergate Junction and Clay Cross are already listed at Grade II.
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