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Range including cowhouse, stables, coach house, smithy and poultry house at Llwydiarth Esgob Farm

A Grade II* Listed Building in Rhosybol, Isle of Anglesey

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.3335 / 53°20'0"N

Longitude: -4.3514 / 4°21'4"W

OS Eastings: 243523

OS Northings: 384424

OS Grid: SH435844

Mapcode National: GBR HMMW.PK0

Mapcode Global: WH42F.4G6S

Entry Name: Range including cowhouse, stables, coach house, smithy and poultry house at Llwydiarth Esgob Farm

Listing Date: 21 February 2001

Last Amended: 21 February 2001

Grade: II*

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 24837

Building Class: Agriculture and Subsistence

Location: Set well back, along a private driveway, from the N side of a country road leading E off the B5111 out of Llanerchymedd towards Benllech. The cowhouse, stables and coach house range is located to the

County: Isle of Anglesey

Community: Rhosybol

Community: Rhosybol

Locality: Llwydiarth Esgob Farm

Traditional County: Anglesey

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Llanerchymedd

History

Early C19 cowhouse and stable range, with mid C19 additions of stable, coach house and smithy, and with additions and re-modelling in the later C19 and early C20. The range is notable for clearly demonstrating the function of the various buildings, including a complete set of cattle or horse stalls in every room, and the differentiation between stables for working (shire) horse, cob and donkey stables (for light carts and horse works) and riding, hunting and carriage horses. The lofts were used for the accommodation of farm workers, with the cowmen in boxbeds above the cowhouse (4 agricultural labourers are recorded living in the cowhouse in the 1841 Census), the ploughmen above the working horses, the grooms above the smaller horses, whilst the head coachman/groom lodged in a larger, heated room complete with 12-pane sash window, above the hunters in their high ceiled loose-boxes to the rear. The provision of a smithy reflects the number and importance of horses on the farm, for work as well as transport, and reflects the wealth and standing of the owners. The poultry house is a very unusual design on Anglesey, resembling a hatchery for game birds. The present layout is shown on the 1889 OS 25" map.

Exterior

Long agricultural range aligned downslope, with six main parts divided by stepped down rooflines; at the L (uphill) end is an early C19 cowhouse/stable (with a lean-to abutting the L gable end), which is positioned forward of the remainder of the range, which comprises two further stables, a coach house and a smithy, all added or re-modelled in the mid-late C19. There is a poultry house abutting the R end of the range, which has a dog kennel and run abutting to the R. Running along the front of the range, up the coach house, is a raised kerbed apron of flagstones (in front of the cowhouse) and cobbles (in front of the stables). To the rear of the range is a purpose built midden, lined with flagstones and with a drainage outlet, into which animal waste was passed directly from holes in the rear walls of the cowhouse and stables. There are also a series of 2-pane windows and vents to the rear walls of the cowhouse and stables, and to the lofts above, the frames of which are in poor condition or absent.
The long lean-to abutting the cowhouse to the L has a boarded door in the main elevation, with a boarded door and 2-pane window in the long elevation to the L return. Rubble walls and slate roof, with tiled copings. The cowhouse/stable range has rubble walls, with timber lintels to the 3-door cowhouse to L, and stone voussoir heads to the openings of the working horse stable to R. Roof of small slates with tiled copings. In the centre of the range is a steep stone staircase with iron handrail, leading to a loft door set under eaves. Two half-glazed agricultural pattern windows to L; 8-panes to the upper part and two shutters to the lower part, with narrow central mullion. The loft was sleeping accommodation for the cowmen working on the farm, who were woken in the morning by a bell rung from within the farmhouse. The working horse stable to the R has a central boarded door flanked by similar 8-pane shuttered windows. Above the door to the R is a narrow boarded pitching door. To the L is an unusual early C20 combination sundial and wind-direction indicator, which operated in conjunction with a weather vane placed on the ridge of the building, and linked by geared rods (the latter surviving inside the building). There is a second stone stair running up the R gable of the stable, with a rubble parapet, and leading to a boarded door in the gable wall. In the apex of the gable is a 12-pane casement window, lighting a garret storey above the stable loft. The staircase also leads into the loft above the stable to R. All of the loft doors have round cat holes cut in the lower part.
The cob and donkey stable to R is set back from the cowhouse range, with a central split boarded door flanked by half-glazed 8-pane and shuttered windows, with brick arch heads. The loft above has two half-glazed 3-pane and shuttered windows, above those to the stable. Single pane skylight to loft. Former dove holes to R gable apex, with 3 rows of corbel ledges. The riding and carriage horse stables, with the eaves line at a lower level, has a door offset to the L flanked by 12-pane casement windows with central mullion; stone voussoir heads to ground floor openings. Plain 2-light (replacement) windows to loft. Blocked former dove holes to gable apex with corbel ledges. Two-storey lofted loose-box wing attached to rear; 2 small-paned windows to the ground floor rear, with a 12-pane sash window to the centre of the gable above, all with brick arch heads. Brick chimney to gable. The loft was accommodation for the coachman or head groom.
The coach house to the R is single storey, with 3 wide doors; the two bays to the L were for coaches, and the one to the R for shoeing horses, in conjunction with the adjoining smithy. Lean-to addition to the rear of the R coach bay. The L door of the coach house has been altered (the original head removed and the door heightened); the other two doors have stone basket-arches with dripcourses. Boarded doors with long external strap hinges; three ventilation slits are cut into each door to the shoeing room. The smithy building is a short cross wing attached to the R hand gable of the coach house. A stone staircase to the front gable wall leads to a boarded door to the paint loft above the smithy, with a stone voussoir head. Stone chimney to the rear gable. Window to R return ground floor, lighting the smithy; an unusual framed timber window with a 16-pane fixed light to the main part, with a tall, narrow aperture to the R, and a double opening below, both empty but probably for ventilators. Abutting the R side of the smithy is a 2-unit poultry house with yards. Rubble walls and a single pitch roof; two low doors with rubble voussoir heads. The unit to the L is substantially larger. The yard wall to the R is full height, which together with the side wall of the smithy forms a 3-sided high walled yard, with a lower wall to the front opening onto a walkway (which also serviced the pigsties, listed separately). A stone arch doorway in the high yard wall to R leads to a small brick lean-to kennel, built against the yard wall, which opens onto an iron railed run.

Interior

The cowhouse to L has a central transverse feeding passage, with timber stalls either side. Brick wall partition to R. The working horse stable has timber stalls for 4 horses, with a separate harness room complete with a double row of harness pegs. The cob and donkey stable has timber stalls and racks for 3 animals, and a sawn and bolted collared truss. The riding and carriage horse stable has a loose-box to the L, with stalls for 3 horses to the R. There is a small timber-lined tackroom to the front L. A curved-headed doorway in the rear wall leads through to an added, high-ceiled bay to the rear, containing two further loose-boxes, which retain hayracks, corner nose bowls and tiled floor. The coach house has a heavy collared tie-beam truss. The bay to the R is extended by a lean-to to the rear. The smithy is accessed via the shoeing room, and retains a stone and brick hearth, and leather bellows. The paint loft over is two bays with a collared truss. The poultry house to the L has 3 rows of stone nesting boxes built into the rear wall, 4-5 boxes per row. The unit to the R is smaller, with fewer boxes.

Reasons for Listing

Listed at Grade II* as an exceptionally good agricultural range, built in several phases but retaining a strong unity of vernacular design and construction. The range is notable for the retention of a complete series of timber stalls, and other internal features, which enable an unusually detailed interpretation of their function. The range also forms an important part of the comprehensive farmstead group at Llwydiarth Esgob Farm, which together reflect the ideals of a gentlemen farmer during the era of Victorian high farming.

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