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Monnow Bridge and Gateway

A Grade I Listed Building in Monmouth, Monmouthshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.809 / 51°48'32"N

Longitude: -2.7199 / 2°43'11"W

OS Eastings: 350460

OS Northings: 212508

OS Grid: SO504125

Mapcode National: GBR FK.XCXN

Mapcode Global: VH86T.SSYL

Entry Name: Monnow Bridge and Gateway

Listing Date: 15 August 1974

Last Amended: 10 August 2005

Grade: I

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 2218

Building Class: Transport

Location: At the entrance to Monmouth's principal commercial street which leads up the hill to the town square from the south-west.

County: Monmouthshire

Town: Monmouth

Community: Monmouth

Traditional County: Monmouthshire

History

Medieval Bridge and Gateway, built in the late C13 (traditionally 1272) to replace a timber bridge built by the Normans (now known to date from the 1170s). This was a part of the general improvement to the town's defences and walls undertaken c1297-1315. The only surviving bridge gateway of its type in Britain, although altered in the C18 and C19. The tower has been used at various times as a toll-house, guard room, gaol and house-of-correction. The gatehouse was last occupied by troops during the Chartist troubles in 1839. In 1705 it was converted into a two storey dwelling and the battlemented parapet was removed and replaced by a roof arrangement similar to the present one, but this was reconstructed in 1832. In 1819 the bridge was widened and the narrow north passageway pierced for pedestrians involving considerable alteration to the structure, with the loss of the original staircase. Originally the total width of the bridge was comprised within the width of what is now the roadway, and footways have been corbelled out on either side. The south footway was supposedly made in 1845 but has a later concrete roof. Recently (2004) closed to all traffic and a programme of works and repairs initiated.

Exterior

Built of coursed red sandstone rubble with some patching in buff sandstone, stone slate roof to gateway. Stone arched gate tower built on the eastern pier of the three arched bridge.
The bridge has three pointed arches, with cutwaters on both sides of the piers, but the arches are segmental where the outer faces were added in the C19.
The gate tower is elliptical in shape with two distinct elevations.
The west elevation has a tall recessed slightly pointed arch with foot arches on either side, the north one with a pointed head and the south one with a Caernarvon head and flat concrete ceiling. Above the main arch there is an overhang with three arches on brackets under a wide relieving arch. There are murder holes, while within the main arch there are grooves for a portcullis. There are slit windows on either side of the arch and another window above the centre of the relieving arch. Projecting garderobe on the north-west side.
The east face is plainer and shows signs of more considerable rebuilding, with patching round the arch. Round headed window above the centre of the arch.
The inner faces of the main arch have an oak access door on the south side and the blocked original access on the north side which once gave entry to a spiral stair. but this was lost when the north foot-arch was built.
The roof has projecting eaves on corbel brackets and is in the form of two half cones joined by a central ridge.

Interior

The interior shows much more clearly how the stonework was repaired and raised in the C19, including a number of courses of red brick at the eaves. The roof structure has principal rafters with ties, all machine cut, and numerous light secondary rafters and purlins. The garderobe survives internally. There is no stair or surviving second floor.

Reasons for Listing

Included and highly graded as an outstanding medieval fortified bridge, now unique in Britain.
Scheduled Ancient Monument MM008(MON).

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